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Can a well-off society in an all-round way be sustainable? Ning Jizhe: the demographic dividend still exists, and the talent dividend will be issued after the advantage.


On September 28, the Information Office of the State Council held a relevant press conference on the white paper "China's all-round well-off society". At the conference, Ning Jizhe, member of the Party group and deputy director of the national development and Reform Commission, Secretary of the Party group and director of the National Bureau of Statistics, said: new changes have taken place in China's total population and structure, but on the whole, the demographic dividend still exists, and the talent dividend will be issued later, The health level of the population has been continuously improved. It still has good human resources guarantee.


Detailed information
Labor resources are still abundant, and the demographic dividend continues to exist

China is still the most populous country in the world, the total population is still growing, and the total population of working age is still huge. China's working age population aged 16-59 has reached 880 million, and there are more than 300 million women of childbearing age, which can maintain a birth population of more than 10 million every year. In 2020, the total number of migrant workers in China will still reach 286 million. The dividend generated by population growth still exists, and labor resources are still abundant, which provides demographic dividend support for sustainable economic development.

The quality of the population has been significantly improved, and new advantages in talent dividends have gradually emerged

Over the past decade, the education level of China's population has increased significantly. In 2020, the average length of education of the working age population aged 16-59 will reach 10.75 years, an increase of 1.08 years over 9.67 years in 2010. Education has made great progress in the past decade, including 208 million people with college education or above, accounting for 23.61% of the working age population, a significant increase of 11.27 percentage points over 2010. The proportion of talent scale increased by more than 10 percentage points and nearly doubled. This will help accelerate the transformation of China's economic development mode, optimize and upgrade the industrial structure and continuously improve the total factor productivity, and provide new talent bonus support for high-quality economic development.

The health level of residents has been greatly improved and the conditions of labor resources have been optimized

Health is both well-being and productivity. With the reform and development of medical and health services, the physical quality of China's population has improved significantly. In 2019, the life expectancy of China's population will reach 77.3 years, an increase of 2.47 years over 2010, which is also a great increase. The physical condition of middle-aged and elderly people has improved generally. Although many people have reached the age, their physical quality is still quite good. In 2020, the infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate will also be reduced to 5.4 & permil respectively; And 16.9/100000, the physical quality of people of both ages has improved. On the whole, the health level of Chinese residents is better than the average level of middle and high-income countries. The achievements in health care also provide effective labor input support for sustainable economic development. Similarly, the health of the labor force has improved, which is conducive to the role of labor resources.

The number and proportion of children's population are rising, and new labor resources are growing

“ Two children alone & rdquo& ldquo; Comprehensive second child & rdquo; Since the implementation of the policy, the number of births in China has rebounded significantly. According to the data of the seventh national census, the number of children aged 0-14 increased by 30.92 million over 2010, with a proportion of 1.35 percentage points& ldquo; Two children & rdquo; The fertility rate has increased significantly, and & ldquo; Two children & rdquo; The proportion increased from about 30% in 2013 to about 50% in 2017. The implementation of the three child policy and supporting measures this year will help to increase the birth population, improve the age structure of the population and realize the long-term balanced development of the population.

Data announcement
Household population

There are 494.16 million households in China, with a household population of 1292.81 million; There are 28.53 million collective households with a population of 118.97 million. The average population per household was 2.62, a decrease of 0.48 from 3.10 in 2010. The scale of family households continues to shrink, mainly due to the increasing frequency of population mobility and the improvement of housing conditions in China. Young people live independently after marriage.


Regional distribution of population

The population of the eastern region accounts for 39.93%, the central region accounts for 25.83%, the western region accounts for 27.12%, and the northeast region accounts for 6.98%. Compared with 2010, the proportion of population in the eastern region increased by 2.15 percentage points, the central region decreased by 0.79 percentage points, the western region increased by 0.22 percentage points and the northeast region decreased by 1.20 percentage points. The population is further concentrated in economically developed regions and urban agglomerations.


Gender composition

The male population is 723.34 million, accounting for 51.24%; The female population is 688.44 million, accounting for 48.76%. The sex ratio of the total population (100 for women and the ratio of men to women) was 105.07, which was basically the same as that in 2010 and decreased slightly. The sex ratio at birth was 111.3, down 6.8 from 2010. The gender structure of China's population continues to improve.


Educated population

The population with university education is 218.36 million. Compared with 2010, the number of people with university education per 100000 people increased from 8930 to 15467, the average length of education of people aged 15 and over increased from 9.08 to 9.91, and the illiteracy rate decreased from 4.08% to 2.67%. The continuous improvement of education reflects the positive results of China's efforts to develop higher education and eliminate illiteracy among young and middle-aged people in the past 10 years, and the continuous improvement of population quality.


Urban and rural population

The population living in cities and towns is 90.199 million, accounting for 63.89%; The population living in rural areas is 509.79 million, accounting for 36.11%. Compared with 2010, the urban population increased by 236.42 million, the rural population decreased by 164.36 million, and the proportion of urban population increased by 14.21 percentage points. With the in-depth development of China's new industrialization, informatization and agricultural modernization and the implementation of the policy of citizenization of agricultural transfer population, the process of China's new urbanization has been steadily promoted in the past 10 years, and the construction of urbanization has made historic achievements.


floating population

The population separated from households is 492.76 million, of which the population separated from households in the municipal area is 116.94 million and the floating population is 375.82 million, of which the inter provincial floating population is 124.84 million. Compared with 2010, the population separated from households increased by 88.52%, the population separated from households increased by 192.66% and the floating population increased by 69.73%. China's sustained economic and social development has created conditions for population migration and mobility. The trend of population mobility is more obvious and the scale of floating population is further expanded.



On the whole, China's demographic dividend still exists, and is steadily changing to talent dividend, conforming to the inevitable trend of made in China to created in China. This also means that enterprises that rely on the development of enjoying the demographic dividend need to put the company's continuous innovation and R & D in the forefront, have a deep insight into the market, make accurate analysis, and grasp the consumption upgrading needs of users. Enterprises should not only be bigger, but also be stronger and better.


-Source: National Bureau of Statistics|-


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